Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Education & Liberal Studies: APA

APA Style

Below you will find APA information and examples of various sources cited in APA format (7th Edition). Scroll down to find the type of source you need to cite. Contact a librarian if you need help!

APA Resources

  • APA Style Central- Answers frequently asked questions and provides citation examples
  • APA Style Blog- The official blog of the American Psychological Association style guide. A great place to search for specific questions as they arise (for instance "What if the website I'm citing doesn't list an author?") 
  • APA Style Manual - an authoritative and easy-to-use reference and citation system and comprehensive coverage of the treatment of numbers, metrication, statistical and mathematical data, tables, and figures for use in writing, reports, or presentations. Available at the Research Help Desk
  • Purdue OWL, APA Style - Comprehensive information and examples of formatting your paper and citing sources in APA style

What is a DOI Number?

Some publications give their articles a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, to help identify the article. These numbers can usually be found on the article abstract page, or on the title page of the article. Some articles do not have a DOI number.

Get Help

If you need help with source citations or any other aspect of your research project, get in touch:

-Email or call our Research & Instruction Librarian

-Stop by the Research Help Desk, open on weekdays from 1-5 pm during the academic year 

-Schedule a research appointment with a librarian any day of the week

Basic Format

In-Text Citations
In-text citations in APA list the author and the date of publication in parentheses at the end of the sentence, before the period. For example, there is an in-text citation at the end of this sentence (Author, 2010). If you are citing a direct quote or another specific part of a source, you'll want to get more specific by adding page numbers. There's another example at the end of this sentence (Author, 2010, p.5).

Reference List
Your APA Reference List should be a separate page (or pages) at the end of your paper, titled "Reference List." List your sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Below are some examples of APA citations of different source types.

Examples by Source Type

Journal Articles

Format:
Last name, first initial. (Publication Year). Title of Article. Title of Journal, Volume # (Issue Number),
         page range. DOI #

Example:

Stella, J., & Croney, C. (2019). Coping Styles in the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) and Implications for Cat Welfare.
        Animals (6), 370. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060370

Journal Article with multiple authors:
List up to twenty authors alphabetically by last name. For more than twenty authors, list the first twenty, followed by an ellipses (...) and then the last author's name. 

Books

Format:

Author's last name, first initial (publication year). Title of book. Location: Publisher

Note that only the first word of the title is capitalized.

Example:

Martel, Y. (2003). Life of Pi. Mariner Books.

Book Chapter

Noble, S. U. (2018) A society, searching. Algorithms of oppression (pp. 1-15) New York:
      New York University Press.

Section of an Edited Reference Book (such as an encyclopedia)

Schneider, D. J. (1994) Attribution and social cognition. In A. M. Colman (Ed.), Companion encyclopedia of psychology
      (pp. 812-830). New York: Routledge.

E-Book
   Marsh, B. (2007). Plagiarism: Alchemy and Remedy in Higher Education. Retrieved from
        http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xna&AN=189696&site=ehost-live

News & Web

News or Magazine Article
Endangered clouded leopard kittens born at US zoo. (2020, April 9). BBC News.
       https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-52238591

Website
  Swaen, B. (2015, August 18). What Citation Style To Use? Scribbr.
      https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/citation-style-overview/